Right Time, Right Plants

Tom Karwin

Each spring, many gardeners seek new plants for their gardens. That’s understandable, since that is when gardens spring into new life (sorry about that!).

The spring can be a good time to plant seeds for annuals, but the fall is by far the better time to plant perennials because our rainy season, beginning historically around mid-October, hydrates the plants while they establish roots and prepare for the following spring.

For this reason, we have excellent plant sales during the fall, offered by non-profit garden groups that support your gardening success, and of course want to earn money for their activities.

These sales offer California natives and other plants that thrive in the Monterey Bay area’s summer-dry climate and that align very nicely with your plans to build soil health in your garden.

Two early sales happen Saturday, October 3rd.

  • The Monterey Chapter of the California Native Plant Society will have its annual plant sale from 10:00 to 1:00 at the Hilton Bialek Habitat at Carmel Middle School. Info: http://montereybay.cnps.org/
  • Watsonville Wetlands Watch will host its 3rd annual Pajaro Valley Backyard Habitat Festival and Native Plant Sale from 9:00 to 4:00 at the Fitz Wetlands Educational Recourse Center, at Pajaro Valley High School. Info: http://watsonvillewetlandswatch.org .

Two more sales have been announced for the following Saturday, October 10th.

The Santa Cruz Chapter of the California Native Plant Society and the UCSC Arboretum will hold their sales together at the UCSC Arboretum’s Eucalyptus Grove. The entrance to the sale is on High Street, is across from Western Drive, on the edge of the UC Santa Cruz campus.

Both sales are open for members from 10:00 – 12:00, and for the public from 12:00 – 4:00. Memberships for both organizations will be available at the gate on the day of the sale.

Info for the CNPS sale: http://www.cruzcnps.org/

Info for the Arboretum sale: http://arboretum.ucsc.edu/ (click on “Events/Recurring Events”)

The Arboretum’s sale includes selections from dry-summer climate regions in California, South Africa and Australia, offering opportunities for venturesome gardeners to add exotic plants to their landscapes. As one example, Melinda Kranj, Curator of the Australian Collections, has shared her knowledge of an iconic Australian plant in “Banksias Breath New Life for a Fall Garden” (click on “News” on the Arboretum website). She wrote, “The UC Santa Cruz Arboretum is currently growing about 50 species, and many different varieties and cultivars” and will have several Banksias available at the sale.

Banksia victoriae

Banksia victoriae

Incidentally, the generic name of this plant honors English botanist Sir Joseph Banks, who collected the first Banksia specimens in 1770, while on Captain James Cook’s first expedition into the south Pacific.

These plant sales are scheduled at the right time, and they offer plants that are right for our regional climate. As always, the gardener should install new plants in the right place in the landscape. Consider mature size and sun exposure, as well as garden aesthetics.

Historic Issues in the Garden

The growing community of organic gardeners—which hopefully includes you—represents the “good guys” in several current struggles between public and private interests in gardening and commercial agriculture. Gardeners and farmers are quite different in many respects, but both are engaged in growing plants.

Mother Nature also grows plants, and has been doing so successfully since the dawn of time.

For about 10,000 years, gardeners and farmers have cooperated with Mother Nature to grow and harvest plants to eat, treat illnesses, dye fabrics, and enjoy their beauty and fragrance. They gradually developed ways to increase yields, reduce the work of growing and improve the qualities of their plants. For the most part, these changes have been compatible with natural processes.

Eventually, people adopted various technologies to improve gardening and especially farming. Beginning 4,500 years ago, various inorganic materials and organic substances derived from natural sources were used as pesticides. Major agricultural technologies include the mechanical reaper (1831) by Cyrus McCormick, and the tractor (1868), both of which brought new efficiencies.

In the 1940s, agribusiness began using synthetic chemical pesticides and great quantities of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. In both cases, there was little or no knowledge of the impacts of these chemicals on human health or the environment.

Rachel Carson’s book, Silent Spring (1962) raised awareness of the conflict between public and private interests related to agrichemicals.

In the 1970’s, research began to development Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies, which rely upon natural processes and do not use synthetic chemicals. IPM became widely used beginning in the late 1970s.

During more recent decades, continuing research and development produced more selective products, including glyphosate, which soon became most widely used herbicide, worldwide.

The ancient methods of organic gardening continued throughout this history, but the seeming cost-effectiveness of uses of agrichemicals dominated commercial agriculture.

Today, we are discovering the consequences of attempts to fool Mother Nature. Insects are developing resistance to synthetic insecticides, weeds are developing resistance to synthetic herbicides, and we are discovering that at least some of these materials threaten our health.

The State of California already has listed 800 chemicals known to cause cancer or birth defects or other reproductive harm, and early this month issued a notice of intent to classify glyphosate as a carcinogen.This classification is based on the findings of the World Health Organization. See: CSG Prop 65 Heirloom EXPO FLYER Glyphosate 9-7-15.

In addition, speakers at recent conferences have called for uses of regenerative agriculture, which is a form of organic farming designed to build soil health or regenerate unhealthy soils. This practice could counteract “conventional” agriculture’s destructive practices, which include uses of synthetic chemicals. Many of those chemicals weaken or kill the soil microbiota, and thereby disrupt the natural carbon cycle and contribute substantially to global warming.

By any measure, we are now in a historic period of change, to reject shortsighted agricultural technology and return to more natural processes. Our health and the health of the environment depend on the success of this transition.


South African Flora

As California’s drought stretches into the future, the plants of Earth’s five Mediterranean climate zones attract gardeners’ interest and soon earn their appreciation. Many of these plants are fine additions to the landscape, offering beauty, fragrance and benefits for garden fauna as well as easy cultivation (with some exceptions) and environmental friendliness.

In today’s column, with our feet on the ground, we have an overview of the flora of one of these “summer-dry” zones: South Africa.

This relatively small country’s Mediterranean climate zone is the very small and extraordinary Cape Floristic Region. As background, botanists have identified six Floristic Regions (floral kingdoms) of the world. These are regions with distinctive plant life. The Cape Floristic Region, by far the smallest of the six, is noteworthy for very high diversity of plant life, with over 8,000 species, and very high endemism: nearly 70% of the plant species are native to the Region and nowhere else.

Much of the Region’s botanic diversity grows on the fire-prone shrub land called fynbos, which is roughly comparable to California’s chaparral. Both of these two shrub lands have shrubs with hard leaves, closely spaced on their stems.

The fynbos is the home for numerous small shrubs, evergreen and herbaceous plants, and bulbs, many of which are in three plant families.

The Protea family (Proteaceae), which includes 80 genera and 1,600 species, all in the Southern Hemisphere, and mostly in South Africa and Australia. The family name comes from the name of the Greek god Proteus, who could change between many forms. The adjective “protean” (changeable, versatile) has the same root. Plants in this family have a great diversity of flowers and leaves.

The popular South African genera in the Protea family include

  • Proteas (sugarbushes), which come in a range of heights, from three feet to nine feet, with unique compound flower heads (correctly, inflorescences) in pink or sometimes red.9-11-15 Protea
  • Leucospermums (pincushions), most reach four-to-five feet tall, with yellow, orange, pink or red flowers.

9-11-15 Leucospermum

  • Leucadendrons (conebushes), various species grow from three-to-eight feet tall; the striking silver tree (L. argenteum) reaches 25-to-40 feet tall, with “soft, silky, shimmering, silvery-green-gray, lance-shaped foliage.” The cone-shaped flowers typically are surrounded by petal-like bracts, often combining red and yellow colors.

9-11-15 Leucadendron

Australia is home to several genera of the Proteaceae, including banksia, grevillea and hakea.

The Cape heaths (Ericaceae) include some 660 species that are endemic to South Africa, and are often called winter (or spring) heather. Another 40 species, including summer (or autumn) heather are native to other parts of Africa the Mediterranean basin and Europe. Most of the Cape heaths are small shrubs, from eight inches to sixty inches in height, with attractive tubular pink flowers throughout the year.

The Cape reeds (Restionaceae). The genus Restio includes 168 species in South Africa. Various species of Restio grow from one-to-ten feet tall, with tiny flowers grouped in spikelets that comprise inflorescences. Other genera in this family of perennial, evergreen rush-like flowering plants are found throughout the Southern Hemisphere.

To view photographs of South African plants, serve the web for the plant’s botanical name and click on the menu option for images. Better yet: to experience the real presence of these plants, browse to arboretum.ucsc.edu, navigate to Visit/Gardens and Collections/South Africa, and tour the Arboretum’s South African collection in person. You could become inspired to bring South Africa’s botanical bounty into your own garden.

Carbon Farming

Climate change has been described as the consequence of the Industrial Revolution, which introduced extensive burning of fossil fuels. This practice disrupts the natural balance of carbon in the soil, the atmosphere and the ocean. Plans to slow or reduce the process of climate often emphasize reducing uses of fossil fuels.

Recently, and all too briefly, we explored the relationship between gardening and climate change. We have learned that common agricultural practices generate about one-third of the surplus CO2 in the atmosphere, making commercial farming a substantial part of the climate change problem.

Prior to the development of modern agriculture, we had organic farming, which is generally compatible with natural processes. The practices we now call “conventional” farming include driving a tractor, tilling the soil, over-grazing, and using fossil fuel-based fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides.

Similarly, farm animals once were raised in pastures, where they grazed on grasses and other plants. Today, cows, pigs and chickens are raised in tight quarters, provided grains and other feed that they work hard to digest, and must be dosed with antibiotics to maintain basic health.

These contemporary, presumably efficient methods are depleting the carbon stores in the soil, and reducing the soil’s natural ability to support plant growth and store moisture.

Soil scientists and environmentalists have been discovering land management strategies that can reduce the rate of loss of soil carbon, and even improve the rate at which agriculture can convert atmospheric CO2 into plant material and soil organic matter. When thoughtfully applied, carbon methods can add significantly to the rate of soil carbon sequestration, and actually reverse the climate change process.

Dozens of specific practices are included in carbon farming; all look like historical organic farming and common sense. The principal methods are composting, grazing by hoofed animals (ungulates), maintaining high percentages of organic matter in the soil (to feed the microbiota), supporting biodiversity, rotating crops and discontinuing uses of synthetic chemicals. The most effective practices orchestrate multiple methods in plans designed for specific circumstances.

Carbon farming, also called regenerative agriculture, should be part of the global response to the threat of climate change, but reduced burning of fossil fuels will still be important.

These promising methods for the management of agricultural lands can have substantial impacts when applied on a large scale, but they also have value when applied in residential gardens. In this column, we have advocated organic methods as beneficial to our flora and fauna. We find now that these methods also have long-term benefits to the health of the soil and the natural balance of carbon in our environment.

For more about this important topic, read Kristin Ohlson’s book, The Soil Will Save Us (2014), (which a reader recommended to me), and search the web for “carbon farming” and “regenerative agriculture.”

If you are growing plants and raising animals on hundreds of acres, try carbon farming. If not, by all means, garden organically!

Interactive Gardening

Our interactions with other persons or things can be among our most absorbing, challenging, satisfying—and occasionally most frustrating—activities. Examples include raising a child, working with colleagues, living with a spouse, cooking, and, yes, gardening.

Early uses of the term, “interaction,” dating from 1832, emphasize reciprocal action, i.e., the action or influence of persons or things on each other.

In this digital age, “interaction” often refers to the responses of computer software to a human operator’s inputs, e.g., keyboard entries, voice commands, or other forms of messaging. True human–computer interactions include the human’s responses to the computer’s output.

In this column, we are focused on gardening.

Interactive gardening means a gardener’s actions on a plant, the plant’s responses to those actions, and the influence of the plant’s responses on the gardener’s future actions.

Some gardener’s believe they can influence plant growth by talking to, or playing music to, the plant, but plant scientists tell us that while plants are very sensitive to their environment, they are unaware of their gardeners or sounds.

For a scientist’s analysis of the ways in which plants experience the world, read What a Plant Knows: A Field Guide to the Senses, by Daniel Chamovitz (Scientific American, 2012). The author reviews the research into what plants see, smell, feel, hear and remember, and how they know where they are.

Chamovitz shows that plants are aware—in highly evolved and surprising ways—of “external pressures that increase or decrease a plant’s chances for survival and reproductive success.”

For this reason, interactive gardening involves the gardener managing the plant’s environment, the plant responding to the environmental conditions, and the gardener noting the plant’s response and modifying his or her actions to achieve an intended response by the plant.

The gardener can affect all aspects of the plant’s environment, including the amount of light, heat, wind and moisture; the structure of the soil; the availability of natural or synthetic nutrients; and the presence of pests and diseases. Planting a seed involves modifying its environment.

The gardener also can interact directly with a plant, but only by touching or cutting the plant by pruning, dividing or transplanting.

For example, the Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica) responds to even a light touch by causing its leaves to fold or droop. This unusual response could be a defense against herbivores or insects that might be startled by the plant’s sudden movement.

As an aside, landscaping and flower arranging do not qualify as interactive gardening because the landscaper or arranger seeks to encourage responses from other humans, not from the plants.

When we consider gardening as an interaction between the gardener and the plant, we realize that the gardener’s success grows with his or her understanding of the plant’s responses to environmental conditions.

This encompasses simple responses, e.g., drooping from lack of moisture, less obvious responses, e.g., slow growth from lack of soil nutrients, and more complex responses, e.g., failure to set fruit from lack of seasonal chill.

Mastering the responses of plants to numerous environmental variables, and differences between plants from various native habitats, can be a lifelong study. Still, every gardener doesn’t need to study all plant’s cultivation preferences, or complete advanced studies of plant science. The gardener who wants to succeed and enjoy the experience should, however, learn about the needs of each plant in his or her garden.

The Ageless Aeonium

Today, we introduce the genus Aeonium, which includes 35 species, most of which are from the Canary Islands, northeast of Africa.

These plants are characterized by the development of rosettes of leaves on basal stems, i.e., stems that rise from the plant’s roots.

The generic name, Aeonium, comes from an ancient Greek word that means “ageless.” In fact, for most species, the rosettes die after producing a flower, although the entire plant lives. A few species are monocarpic, meaning that they produce a single rosette without a stem, and then the entire plant dies.

Popular Cultivars

  1. A. ‘Zwartcop’ (Black Rose), a cultivar of A. arboretum, develops rosettes with very dark reddish-purple, almost black leaves, on stems that can rise to four feet. This plant produces effective displays in the landscape or in a mixed container, especially when contrasted with yellow flowers like those of the plant’s own blossoms.
  2. A. ‘Sunburst’ (Copper Pinwheel), a cultivar of A. davidbramwellii, is a variegated form, with large rosettes with variegated green and white leaves edged in bright, coppery red. The stalks rise up to 18 inches. ‘Sunburst’, like other variegated plants, can provide pleasing contrast in the garden.

Aeonium 'Sunburst' best

  1. 3. A. nobile (Noble Aeonium) produces a single, stemless rosette up to nearly two feet in diameter, making it entirely distinctive among the aeoniums. The leaves are yellowish, with a reddish edge when grown in bright light. This is one of the monocarpic aeoniums: it dies after producing its reddish blossoms.
  2. A. tabuliforme (Saucer Plant, Dinner Plate Plant) is another monocarpic aeonium that provides a single, unique, nearly flat stemless rosette.


Aeoniums will be dormant during the summer months and resume growing in the early autumn.

They are very easy to grow in containers, where they flourish with their shallow roots and occasional watering. Use a normal potting soil, rather than a fast-draining cactus mix. In the Monterey Bay area, they prefer bright morning sun and afternoon shade. Fertilize only when the leaves become yellowish, indicating nitrogen deficiency. Too much fertilizer will promote too-rapid growth and weak stems.

When grown in the garden in this area, aeoniums require little care. As with container plants, avoid very rich soil and fertilizers.


All aeonium species and hybrids can be propagated from seeds, but most are propagated easily from stem cuttings. This might be done to produce additional plants or to bring a rangy plant into a more compact form. During the plant’s normal growth period, from autumn to mid-spring, cut a rosette with up to five inches of stem (shorter for smaller, shrub-like forms) and place in a cool shady place for at least three days, to heal over. Then, place the cutting in a normal potting mix, in a small container, and in a shaded, windless location to reduce moisture loss. After the plant has established roots, place in a container or in the garden.

The monocarpic species are not propagated from stem cuttings, but from leaf cuttings, which are more successful with A. tabuliforme than with A. nobilis.

Aeoniums are drought-tolerant plants that are easy to cultivate and interesting additions to the garden.

Updating the Landscape

August might not be the best time of the year to work in your garden.

Even the Monterey Bay area’s temperate climate can be uncomfortably hot for digging (if that is among your priorities).

The early morning hours can be a fine time to keep up the chores, but using that time presumes readiness for an early start and control over the day’s schedule, which is not everyone’s situation.

Still, the lazy days of summer include opportunities for creative advances in the garden.

A priority task that is too often neglected, and could be pursued now in a timely way, is the annual assessment and adjustment of the home landscape.

The assessment process can involve a slow inspection walk through the garden, but ideally includes choosing a vantage point where a comfortable seat and a cool drink will support appraising each significant plant, and envisioning the renewal of the landscape.

Screen Shot 2015-08-15 at 11.01.27 AM

Take a little time for this important task, which can guide progress during cooler days, which are not far off, and chart longer-term improvements.

Right now is also a good time for your review of the landscape because in about two months, with optimism, we will begin our rainy season. At that time, we should have new plants in the ground, because the rains will keep them watered as they become established.

This review presents a good opportunity to recruit a fellow gardener to provide a second opinion. Invite reciprocal visits with someone who both respects the current restraints on your time and resources, and brings a creative perspective to the process.

When appraising the landscape, look for…

  • Plants that have been neglected, and consequently are struggling, dying or already dead.
  • Plants that are overgrown, and have begun intruding on walkways or crowding other plants.
  • Plants that need dividing to perform well. (Dig and replant irises this month and next.)
  • Plants that were misplaced originally, and would look better in another spot.
  • Areas that would be improved by the addition of a new plant of a particular size, blossom color or form.

The last appraisal listed above will require study to identify the right plants for addition to the garden. This could involve visits to the local garden center, or reviews of printed catalogs or websites. A neighborhood stroll is always a practical approach to finding plants that would work well in your garden and flourish your local growing conditions. When you see a desirable plant, ask the homeowner to name the plant so you could search the web for its cultivation needs.

Summarize the findings of the appraisal in a task list with target dates for needed adjustments.

Regular reviews and adjustments of your landscape will keep it looking fresh and interesting. Such reviews could be done annually, as proposed here, or at the beginning of each season.

Our gardens please us because they are alive and always changing, so gardening succeeds best when gardeners interact with Nature.

Water Storage Tricks

With our persistent drought, and the possibility that it signals a long-term change in our climate, gardeners are becoming interested in succulent plants. They warrant a closer look.

All plants store moisture in various parts of their anatomy. Succulent plants store more moisture than plants in general, having adapted to surviving in areas of irregular rainfall.

Succulence is a characteristic of plants, rather than a taxonomic category. As a result, identifying succulent plants can be an arbitrary exercise. For example, some gardeners will group succulents apart from geophytes and cacti, although both store moisture. That’s OK, because “succulent” is not a formal definition, but it’s still appropriate to think of geophytes and cacti as good at storing moisture.

Succulents are found in about sixty plant families, and a wide range of genera within those families.

One unusual group of succulent plant is the caudiciforms, which store moisture in a caudex, which is a woody stem structure that typically develops just under the surface of the soil. Gardeners who enjoy growing these caudiciforms in containers often adjust them to display the caudex above (or partially above) the soil surface. The caudex, also called a “lignotuber,” is not attractive in the conventional sense, but by any name it is an ingenious adaptation of the plant to unreliable moisture conditions.

My garden includes two caudiciform plants. One is a Ponytail Palm (Beaucarnea recurvate), from Mexico, which is not really a palm. The cultivation advice for this plant is to never water. This might seem harsh, especially for gardeners who equate watering regularly with nurturing the plant, but it indicates that the plant is epiphytic, meaning that it derives moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris that accumulates around it.

Ponytail Palm

Ponytail Palm (Beaucarnea recurvate). Click to enlarge the photo, and make more visible the caudex at the base of the plant.

Screen Shot 2015-08-02 at 8.30.44 PMMy other caudiciform plant is a Beautiful Serpent (Agapetes serpens), which is from the Himalayan mountain range north of India. It is in the Ericaceae (Heath) family. The plant’s specific name refers to the snaky growth of its stems, but its blossoms are more distinctive, in my view.


I have not seen the common name, Beautiful Serpent, online, but that’s what I call this plant.

Screen Shot 2015-08-02 at 8.31.19 PMMy plant is A. ‘Ludgvan Cross’, which is a cross of A. serpens and A. rugosa, both from the Himalayas. This hybrid has distinctive chevron markings on the blossoms.


Both photos of Agapetes serpens are from Strange Wonderful Things: Rare and Exotic Plants which is a fine website for gardeners to visit.

I found this rather rare (or at least uncommon) plant in a local garden center, then found online cultivation advice that emphasized bright but cool conditions, with protection from the afternoon sun. This seemed appropriate for a plant from the Himalayas, so I put in a container of about 1.5-gallon size, filled with good potting soil, placed the pot in a bright shade location, and watered it regularly.

The plant grew well enough, but has produced few stems and blossoms, compared to photos I have seen online. It didn’t seem happy.

With a bit more research, I learned for the first time that this plant is a caudiciform. The caudex is below soil level, so this was a surprise. Then with further research, I learned that it is also epiphytic! This is a game-changer.

Not all caudiciform plants are epiphytic, but they use available moisture very efficiently, so irrigation should at least be limited.

My cultivation plan for this plant now involves keeping it in the same bright shade location, and discontinuing irrigation. Reportedly, it prefers humid conditions, so I might mist it occasionally.

The first takeaway from my experience with this plant is to find more than one source of information on unusual plants that you bring to your garden. The Internet holds an amazing wealth of information of value to gardeners, and we should draw upon it routinely.

An important first step in researching a plant is to learn its botanical name. A search based on a common name often will lead to good information, but the botanical name is more accurate and preferable.

Try one or more caudiciform plants among the succulents in your garden. A rich source of information on these plants is the website bihrmann.com. Hint: when you browse to the home page, click on the image immediately after “.com.”

Incidentally, you might enjoy exploring this website, which has many images of flora and fauna, in several categories. The author, identified only as Bihrmann, has travelled extensively, taken an enormous number of photographs and lived a rich life. Some of the pages are in Danish.


Summer Priorities


My first summer priority in the garden centers on weeding, and my regular resolution to walk around with a weed identification book. My desire to know the names of garden plants extends to the weeds that know so well how to grow under all conditions, and without nurture.

One new arrival is the Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum), which is a relative of several desirable plants, including potatoes, tomatoes and peppers. It is common throughout California.

7-17-15 - Solanum_nigrum

This weed grows up to four feet tall. UC’s Integrated Pest Management website describes its leaves as follows: “The first true leaves are spade shaped with smooth edges and the lower surface is often purple. Later leaves are increasingly larger, egg shaped, dark green, often purple tinged, with a smooth to slightly wavy edge, and covered with short non-glandular hairs and some glandular hairs.”

The plant produces small, star-shaped white flowers that develop in blackberries about one-quarter inch in diameter. Some varieties have edible berries, but their taste is not good enough to offset risking that you have a different variety in your garden.

To its credit, the Black Nightshade pulls up easily.

Another member of the Solanaceae, the tomato, is also flourishing in my garden. This year, I planted two cherry tomato varieties from Love Apple Farm, chosen at San Francisco Flower & Garden Show. A volunteer from last season, ‘Sweet Million’, popped up, so with minimal watering, I have an abundant harvest of cherries for salads and casual snacks outdoors.

Then, a friend gave me a seedling of a Black Krim (Solanum lycopersicum), a heirloom tomato from Russia. This plant needs consistent moisture. If the soil is allowed to dry out between watering sessions, the fruit has a tendency to crack.

Tomato fanciers relish its “rich, salty flavor,” so I’m watching for the fruits to ripen enough for a taste. When fully ripe, the tomatoes are a dark reddish purple or brown (not truly black) and with dark green around the top, or shoulder.

Screen Shot 2015-07-30 at 11.57.09 AM

Black Krim Tomato Credit: www.gardenharvestsupply.com/

Another priority for the summer is mulching, which is actually a good practice for any season, whenever the soil is uncovered. Mulching discourages weeds, slows the evaporation of moisture, creates a good environment for soil microbes, and protects the soil from erosion.

Organic mulches are available in garden centers in bags of 1.5 or 2 cubic feet. For larger gardens, chipped material from a tree service is a low-cost alternative. Such material is coarser than commercial mulches, and consequently lasts longer.

A tree service will drop a load of chips on your property without charge, if you can receive it on their schedule. Another option is load a yard or two of chips into your truck, at the service’s premises. Call ahead!

A responsible tree service will not bring or offer chips from diseased trees, but otherwise the chips will be from a randomly chosen pruning project. All chips are good in the garden, but some are more aromatic than others. Think eucalyptus!

Finally, during these warm summer months, we can anticipate significant rainfalls this winter, based on the meteorologists’ assessments of the El Niño ocean conditions. Potentially heavy rains won’t completely end our drought, but it could help a lot.