During the current dormant season, cleanup work is ongoing. This is a good time to take a hard look at each part of the garden to consider needs to prune or remove plants. While evaluating my garden’s bed of South African perennials, I focused on two plants that are members of the Amaryllis family. They both grow best under partially shaded conditions, and appreciate regular watering during the summer months. Here is a closer look at these plants.
Bush lily (Clivia miniata). This plant, which we might call “Clumping Clivia” grows from rhizomes and slowly spreads through offsets. The genus name honors Lady Charlotte Florentina Clive, Duchess of Northumberland; the specific epithet means “cinnabar-red.”
The genus includes five species: C. miniata, C. nobilis, C. gardenii, C. caulescens, and the recently discovered C mirabilis. Hybridizers have produced numerous interspecies crosses, some with variegated leaves.
The Bush Lily produces deep green, shiny evergreen leaves in clumps up to two feet high, and very attractive trumpet-shaped flowers in colors that range from yellow through orange to red. Bloom times vary with the species: C. miniata generally blossoms August through November, but can also produce blooms at other times of the year.
This plant can be propagated by dividing a large clump, or by transplanting offsets. Divisions might take two seasons to bloom. The Bush Lily has a reputation as a “spectacular” container plant, given a well-drained potting mix with compost added, regular watering and fertilizing during the summer months, and a semi-shaded location. My clump already has offsets; one option would be to lift one to plant in a container.
Natal Lily, Lily of the Orinoco (Crinum moorei). This genus includes some 180 species of bulbous plants. C. moorei (one of the more popular species) develops bulbs that are five-to-eight inches in diameter, and flower stalks up to four feet high. In the summer, each stalk can produce five-to-ten large, open, white to pinkish red, open tubular flowers. The light green-to-green, strap-shaped leaves can be up to three feet long.
The genus name is derived from the Greek krinon, meaning lily, and the specific epithet honors Dr. D. Moore, director of the Glasnevin Botanical Gardens in Dublin,
In its native habitat, the Natal Lily goes dormant in the winter and the leaves die off after flowering. In the Monterey Bay area, however, the leaves persist during the winter, while the stalk lean over and become bedraggled.
Propagate the Natal Lily by digging the large bulbs and replanting them about two feet apart. They need good space as they will develop additional bulb. My plant would benefit from dividing in this manner, as crowding might result in fewer blossoms.
I have recently planted nearby the bulb of an Orange River Lily (C. bulbispermum) ‘Striped’, a cultivar of a species that is characterized by blossoms that are white with red stripes. This bulb could require two or even three seasons of growth before producing blossoms, but it will in time provide an interesting contrast to the related Natal Lily.
In the course of reviewing my garden’s bed of South African perennials, I removed two shrubs that had grown rangy due to insufficient exposure to the sun. This action released an area for new plants, so I am considering the many good and interesting bulbous plants from South Africa’s Cape Region. Some of these plants are already familiar to gardeners: Agapanthus, Amaryllis, Dierama, Dietes, Freesia, Gladiolus, Kniphofia, Nerine, Watsonia, and Zantedechias (Calla Lily). Dozens more exist that can be hunted down with a little effort, and will grow well in Monterey Bay area gardens.
Good reference books include The Color Encyclopedia of Cape Bulbs, by John Manning, Peter Goldblatt, and Dee Snijman (Timber Press, 2002), and Bulbous Plants of southern Africa, By Niel Du Plessis and Graham Duncan (Tafelberg Publishers, 1989). A helpful online source is the website of the South African National Biodiversity Institute (PlantzAfrica.com).
Explore South African bulbs!